Some Notes on Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto (1848)


  • Bourgeois society…has but established new classes, new condition of oppression, newforms of struggle in place of the old ones.
  • Our epoch, the epoch of the bourgeoisie…has simplified the class antagonism: society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: bourgeoisie and proletariat.
  • …the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development, of a series of revolution in the modes of production and of exchange.
  • Each step in the development of the bourgeoisie was accompanied by a corresponding political advance of that class. An oppressed class under the sway of the feudal nobility, an armed and self-governing association in the medieval commune.
  • …the executive of the modern State is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie.
  • The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society.
  • The bourgeoisie has subjected the country to the rule of the towns.
  • The bourgeoisie keeps more and more doing away with the scattered state of the population, of the means of production, and of property. It has agglomerated population, centralized means of production, and has concentrated property in a few hands.

The bourgeoisie has created more massive and more colossal productive forces than have all preceding generation together.

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